Session 5: Sport

15. November
11:00 - 12:00
Lokale: Auditorium
Chair: Adam Witten and Martin Lind

37. Does internal bracing with suture tape augmentation improve clinical outcome in ACL reconstructed patients?
Simone Elmholt1, Torsten Nielsen1, Anders Galaly1, Kaspar Saxtrup2, Mogens Hansen3, Martin Lind1
1. Department of Orthopaedics, Aarhus University hospital 2. Private Hospital Mølholm, Vejle 3. Department of Orthopaedics, Silkeborg regional hospital

Background: Internal bracing with suture tape is a synthetic ligament augmentation that acts as a “seat belt” during the early healing and rehabilitation phase after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Biomechanical testing has showed that suture tape augmentation improves the strength of the graft construct which may lead to improved clinical outcomes.
Aim: The aim of this present study was to compare clinical outcomes in ACLR patients with and without suture tape augmentation.
Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospectively register- based cohort study with data from the Danish Knee Reconstruction Registry (DKRR). A cohort of patients undergoing ACLR with either hamstring tendon autografts or quadriceps tendon autografts in combination with a synthetic ligament augmentation (InternalBrace) was identified. By using a propensity score, the InternalBrace group was matched 1:1 to a group of ACLR patients without augmentation (control group). The primary outcome was sagittal knee laxity and secondary outcomes were rotational stability with the pivot shift test, patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and revision surgery rates
Results: A total of 358 patients were included, 179 in the InternalBrace group and 179 in the control group. At one-year follow-up the InternalBrace group demonstrated a higher sagittal knee laxity of 2.1 mm (95% CI: 1.7;2.4) compared to 1.3 mm in the control group (95% CI: 1.1;1.6) (p=<0.01). There was no difference in the odds of having a positive pivot shift in the InternalBrace group (17% positive) compared to the control group (16%) (p=0.585). There was no difference in any of the KOOS subcategories between the groups (p>0.05 for all comparisons). At two-years follow-up 2 patients had a revision surgery in the InternalBrace group compared to 3 patients in the control group.
Interpretation / Conclusion: Patients undergoing ACLR with suture tape augmentation had an increased sagittal knee laxity compared to standard ACLR one-year postoperatively. There was no difference in pivot shift, PROMs and revision rates.

38. Long-term outcomes in patients with acute Posterior Cruciate Ligament injury treated non-operatively with a standardized exercise program and support brace intervention
Randi Gram Rasmussen1, Birgitte Blaabjerg1, Torsten Grønbech Nielsen2, Lene Lindberg Miller1, Martin Lind2,
1. Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Aarhus University Hospital; 2. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital.

Background: Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) injuries can be treated non-operatively with a structured rehabilitation program or with surgical reconstruction. However, while outcomes of PCL injuries treated surgically are well described, there is a paucity of larger prospective studies reporting long- term outcomes of exercise interventions.
Aim: The primary aim was to investigate patient- reported outcomes of a physiotherapy-led exercise and support brace intervention in patients with acute PCL injury in a five-year follow-up period. The secondary aim was to report conversion to surgical reconstruction.
Materials and Methods: Patients with an acute PCL injury (presenting within eight weeks of injury), completed a 16-weeks exercise intervention including 12 weeks in a support brace. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed with the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Furthermore, conversion to surgery was prospectively extracted from medical records.
Results: Fifty patients were initially included in this present study. Twenty-eight patients had isolated PCL injury and 22 patients had combined PCL injury. The mean IKDC score improved from 35 at baseline to 70 at the five-year follow-up. All mean KOOS subscale scores increased (baseline/five- year follow-up): Symptoms: 52/87 points; Pain 56/88 points; Activities of Daily Living 58/90 points; Sport/Rec. 17/75 points; Qol 23/73 points. Seven patients (14%) converted to PCL surgical reconstruction whereof two patients had an isolated PCL injury and five patients had knee dislocation. Median time from initiation of non-operative intervention to surgery was 13 months (range 10-14).
Interpretation / Conclusion: The physiotherapy-led exercise and support brace intervention demonstrated improvements in patient-reported outcomes in long-term follow-up and the risk of PCL surgical reconstruction was considered low within the first five years.

39. KIDS-KNEES: the first condition-specific PROM for children with ACL deficiency is ready for use
Christian Fugl Hansen1, Michael Krogsgaard1, John Brandt Brodersen2, 3, Martin Lind4, Peter Faunø4, Karl Bang Christensen5
1. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg; 2. The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen; 3. Primary Health Care Research Unit, Region Zealand; 4. Sector for Sports Traumatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby; 5. Department of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen

Background: The existing patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) used to evaluate children with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency have been characterized as insufficient by IOC, and they have poor content and construct validity for these patients. Thus, there is a need for an adequate outcome in large scale initiatives such as the European ‘PAMI’ and the American ‘PLUTO’ projects. A preliminary version of a new PROM for this patient group, ‘KIDS-KNEES (ACL)’, has been developed using adequate methods. The measurement properties need to be assessed before a final version can be released
Aim: To evaluate the construct validity of the preliminary 60-item version of KIDS-KNEES (ACL)
Materials and Methods: A nation-wide cohort of all children and adolescents in Denmark with an ACL injury, below the age of 16 at the time of injury, treated with ACL reconstruction or physiotherapy in the period 2016 to 2022 were invited to participate in the study. Hence, we included patients across various time points. Patients =18 years at the time of survey were excluded. Patients completed the preliminary version of KIDS- KNEES electronically in REDCap or as a paper version via postal mail. Using ‘R’ software, Item Response Theory models and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) evaluated the structural validity (dimensionality), local dependency, internal consistency and differential item functioning (DIF)
Results: There were 232 patients eligible for the study. The survey yielded an adequate sample size of 138 responses. Five declined the invitation while 89 did not respond. Items that fitted the CFA and IRT models, were free from DIF and showed no evidence of local dependence were retained. Items that did not fulfill these requirements were modified to fit the models or excluded
Interpretation / Conclusion: The Danish ‘KIDS-KNEES (ACL)’ is a multidimensional, structurally valid and reliable PROM for children and adolescents with ACL deficiency. It will be translated and adapted into relevant languages and made available for free to replace the currently used alternatives, due to its superior measurement properties

40. Agreement between arthrometers for measuring sagittal knee laxity in Anterior Cruciate Ligament injured patients
Rasmus Jens Plambeck1, Jacob Olesen1, Louise Mortensen2, Lene Lindberg Miller2,3, Torsten Grønbech Nielsen2,3, Nanna Rolving2
1. School of Physiotherapy, VIA University College, Aarhus 2. Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Aarhus University Hospital 3. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital

Background: Arthrometer testing is conducted to assess knee laxity in relation to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and is used as part of a diagnostic test battery. Additionally, the tests are performed at follow-up visits after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) to evaluate knee stability. Although the Rolimeter and Lacmeter are commonly used arthrometers in the clinic for assessing knee laxity, the knowledge about measurement agreement between the two methods is lacking.
Aim: The aim was to investigate the agreement between the Rolimeter and Lachmeter in patients with either ACL injury or after ACLR.
Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, including patients with ACL injuries or ACLR, from the Department of Sports Trauma at Aarhus University Hospital. Three measurements were conducted with each arthrometer on each knee and only the third measurement from each knee and arthrometer was included in the analysis. The tests were carried out by two experienced testers. To ensure blinding, an assistant read the measurements. Laxity assessments for each individual knee as well as the difference in laxity between the two knees (side-to-side difference (SSD)) were analyzed using Bland-Altman plots, including calculation of bias and limits of agreement between the two measurement instruments. Differences between the instruments were compared using paired t-test. A maximal difference of 1 mm was allowed between the two arthrometers.
Results: 50 patients (ACL injury or ACLR) were included in the study. The preliminary analysis of 22 patients showed a systematic bias of -0.68 mm (95% CI: -0.35;-0.01) for the measurements on each individual knee, with the Lachmeter measuring 0.68 mm higher laxity than the Rolimeter. The Bland- Altman plot for the SSD between the two knees showed a systematic bias of 0.25mm (95% CI:-0.49;1.00) with the largest difference for the Rolimeter. The disagreement between the two arthrometers was thus within the 1 mm limit, corresponding to an acceptable agreement.
Interpretation / Conclusion: When used by the same tester, the Rolimeter and Lachmeter shows acceptable agreement and may therefore be used interchangeably in the clinic.

41. ACL injury mechanism in badminton: A register study of 539 Danish badminton players.
Niels Christian Kaldau1, Frederik Flensted Andersen1, Kristoffer Weisskirchner Barfod1, Peter Nyby Hersnæs1, Per Hølmich1
1.Sports Orthopedic Research Center Copenhagen (SORC-C), Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital Amager-Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark

Background: Over recent years, more ACL ruptures in badminton players have occurred e.g. the two former Olympic gold medalists, Carolina Marin and Li Xuerui. Little is known about the injury burden and mechanism in badminton.
Aim: To investigat the distribution of ACL injuries on the badminton court and the preceding movement.
Materials and Methods: The study, ACL Denmark, investigate ACL ruptures in a cohort of 90.600 participants. Of those, 539 participants reported ACL rupture during badminton and filled in a questionnaire on the injury mechanism and their pre-injury level. Data is presented as numbers, percentage, means and SD with chi square test for dichotomous outcomes.
Results: Most participants played badminton (n=435, 81 %) as primary sport and 155 (29 %) reported to play on a competitive level (Tegner score 8). The rear court (n=285, 40 %) was the most frequent location of injury but with a high percentage on the front and midcourt (n=154, 22 %). The rear court was more prevalent among players aged 18-29. The most prevalent movement preceding the ACL injury was the scissor kick jump on the rear court (100, 19 %) followed by lunge at the net (70, 13 %) and lunge at the rear court (69, 13 %). One hundred and six players (15%) were injured preceded by a deceptive shot from the opponent.
Interpretation / Conclusion: ACL injuries in badminton occur mostly on the rear court and the most prevalent movements preceding the injury are the scissor kick jump and the lunge.

42. The impact of clinical and patient reported outcome on physical performance at one-year follow-up after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Torsten Grønbech Nielsen1, Ulrik Dalgas2, Martin Lind1
1. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark 2. Exercise Biology, Dep. Public Health, Aarhus University

Background: The majority of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLr) patients wish to return to sport. Nonetheless, final clinical evaluation after ACLr normally includes no physical testing making it difficult to determine readiness to return to sport. It would be helpful to clinicians to identify easily determined factors associated with physical function in ACLr patients.
Aim: Aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical test performance in ACLr patients and known ACL risk factors, knee laxity and patient reported outcomes at one-year follow-up
Materials and Methods: The cohort included ACLr patients undergoing surgery between 2009-2014. Inclusion criteria were: Isolated primary ACLr and existing data on single-hop, triple-hop or strength performance at one-year follow-up. To guide in return to sport after ACLr patients were invited to an extended one-year visit to clarify their readiness to return to sport. The extended test battery included a clinical evaluation (sagittal knee laxity, pivot shift test), three patient reported outcomes (KOOSsport, IKDC, SANE) and three physical tests (single- and triple-hop and leg extension strength test from which Leg Symmetry Index (LSI) was calculated). Multivariable regression analyses were performed for each of the three physical tests including known risk factors, clinical outcomes (laxity<3 mm and pivot shift grade 0 was applied as cut off for good vs. poor status) and patient reported outcomes (KOOSsport>75, IKDC>75.9 and SANE>92.7 was applied as cut off for good vs. poor status).
Results: A total of 480 patients were included in the study. Sagittal laxity<3 mm had a negative impact on the single-hop LSI, whereas pivot shift grade 0 or IKDC>75.9 had a positive impact on single-hop LSI. Age<20, pivot shift grade 0 and KOOSsport>75 were found to have be positively associated with triple-hop LSI. Finally, age<20 and IKDC>75.9 were positively associated with leg extension strength LSI.
Interpretation / Conclusion: Age, sagittal laxity, pivot shift and patient reported outcomes are associated with physical test performance one year after ACLr. Due to this finding age, sagittal laxity, pivot shift and patient reported outcome cannot replace a return to sport test battery

43. The Impact of posterior tibial slope on treatment outcome in Anterior Cruciate Ligament revision patients
Jacob Sorwad1, Torsten Grønbech Nielsen1, Ole Gade Sørensen1, Lars Konradsen2, Martin Lind1
1. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark; 2. Section for sports Traumatology, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

Background: Posterior tibial slope (PTS) has shown to be a potential risk factor in relation to Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries. The impact of PTS on treatment outcomes in ACL revision patients is yet to be investigated.
Aim: To investigate the impact of PTS on postoperative outcome in an ACL revision cohort evaluated by sagittal knee stability and patient-reported subjective knee function.
Materials and Methods: Lateral knee radiographs in ACL revision patients were retrospectively reviewed and both medial and lateral tibial plateau inclination angles were measured using tibial proximal anatomical axis as reference axis. Sagittal knee stability was evaluated on side-to-side difference using Rolimeter measurements at baseline and at one-year follow-up. Subjective reported outcomes were obtained using KNEES-ACL, KOOS, and Tegner Activity Scale (TAS) questionnaires at baseline and at two- year follow-up.
Results: A total of 105 ACL revision patients were included in this present study. No correlation between both medial and lateral PTS and knee stability prior to revision surgery and one-year post revision surgery was found. Furthermore, no correlation between KNEES-ACL, KOOS or TAS and medial and lateral PTS prior to revision surgery and two years post revision surgery was found.
Interpretation / Conclusion: The present study found no association between PTS with either knee stability or subjective reported outcomes in ACL revision patients.